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Indirect Negative Evidence as Corrective Feedback in Second Language Writing: Comparing Output to Input

Abstract

This study examines the effect of comparing learner output to input in increasing the accuracy of grammatical form in L2 writing. Plough (1994) discusses indirect negative evidence as the setting up of an expected environment so that when the expected environment is altered, learners notice the difference via comparison between the expected and the unexpected. The study suggests that the expected environment is the learner's own output, and the input is unexpected. Two research questions are addressed: 1) Can learners notice their own output errors by comparing output to input? and 2) Does comparing output to input promote higher levels of sustained accuracy? The experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on both the posttest and the delayed posttest, though both groups improved significantly.

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Vickers, C. H., (2001) “Indirect Negative Evidence as Corrective Feedback in Second Language Writing: Comparing Output to Input”, Journal of Second Language Acquisition and Teaching 8, p.27-44.

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Caroline H. Vickers (University of Arizona)

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