Latin America has a long history of extractive and exploitative territorial activities, dating back to the colonial era. However, in the last decade there has been a steep increase in these activities, and in socio-environmental conflicts, in Latin America. There are indications of the links between the exploitation of natural resources and the violation of human rights, which materializes in the Amazon through the increase of expulsions and evictions of families, assassination attempts, murders, illegal imprisonments, intimidation, and threats. The main targets of these crimes are leaders who head the struggle to defend the rights of collectivities to land and territory, the environment, human rights and their multiple cultural and life expressions. The state of Pará (Eastern Amazonia) has appeared in the last decade as one of the states in Brazil with the highest incidence of cases of land conflicts, assassinations, aggression, defamation, and death threats directed against community leaders and environmental defenders. Thus, this article aims to quantify, characterize and reflect on the environmental defenders and community leaders suffering death threats and under legal protection in the state of Pará, Eastern Amazonia (between 2014 and 2020). It also seeks to identify the main activities and sectors that threaten these groups and the reasons behind the intensification of threats in recent years.
Keywords: Amazonia, Pará, conflicts, Environmental Defenders, human and environmental rights
How to Cite:
Rodrigues, J. C. & Campos, R. L. & Santana, J. R., (2022) “Environmental defenders suffering death threats and "under protection" in the state of Pará, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil”, Journal of Political Ecology 29(1), 430–454. doi: https://doi.org/10.2458/jpe.4692
- Amazon Foundation for the Support of Studies and Research