Extraction and conservation seem to be polar opposites, yet they entertain multiple relations as the 'greening' of extractive activities mobilizes conservation efforts to address the 'extinction crisis.' Drawing on a review of the literature and two case studies, this article discusses the politics of affinity and enmity shaping the extraction-conservation nexus, and partnerships. As crisis conservation and green extraction receive increased attention, the article suggests that the convergence of extraction and conservation is not only pragmatic, but also reflects shared discursive imaginaries and valuations of nature, practices materialized through spaces of 'double exception', and common politics of enmity directed at local communities that legitimize exclusionary practices rather than solve capitalism's contradictions.
Keywords: extraction, conservation, biodiversity offsets, land grabs, green grabs
How to Cite:
Le Billon, P., (2021) “Crisis conservation and green extraction: biodiversity offsets as spaces of double exception”, Journal of Political Ecology 28(1), p.854–888. doi: https://doi.org/10.2458/jpe.2991