TY - JOUR
AB - <p>Non-zero correlation coefficients have non-normal distributions, affecting both means and standard deviations. Previous research suggests that z transformation may effectively correct mean bias for N's less than 30. In this study, simulations with small (20 and 30) and large (50 and 100) N's found that mean bias adjustments for larger N's are seldom needed. However, z transformations improved confidence intervals even for N = 100. The improvement was not in the estimated standard errors so much as in the asymmetrical CI's estimates based upon the z transformation. The resulting observed probabilities were generally accurate to within 1 point in the first non-zero digit. These issues are an order of magnitude less important for accuracy than design issues influencing the accuracy of the results, such as reliability, restriction of range, and N.</p>
AU - Richard L. Gorsuch, Curtis S. Lehmann
DA - 2011/5//
DO - 10.2458/v1i2.114
IS - 2
VL - 1
PB - University of Arizona Libraries
PY - 2011
TI - Correlation Coefficients: Mean Bias and Confidence Interval Distortions
T2 - Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences
UR - http://journals.librarypublishing.arizona.edu/jmmss/article/id/764/
ER -